Authorized education is the way into the third millennium


Women's network program of the Open Society Institute

International Foundation "Renaissance"

Institute of Linguistics named after O.A. Desired

Tavri National University named after V.I. Vernadskyi

All-Ukrainian Association of Authorized Education and Communications

Information and advisory women's center

Center "Women's initiative"


Authorized education -
way into the third millennium


International scientific and practical conference


December 19-23, 1999


The publication of the conference materials was made possible thanks to the support

Network program of the Open Society Institute


International Foundation "Renaissance"






Responsible editor

Olena Suslova


The editors reserve the right to edit the text for gender sensitivity and balance. Also, in the Ukrainian text, in order to distinguish concepts, the word "man" is used to indicate gender, and "man" is used to indicate marital status. The original languages ​​of the performances are Ukrainian, Russian, and English.





Olena Suslova


Each analogy suffers from inaccuracy, but an open society involves treating the individual with the same respect as the sovereign state. Therefore, the purpose of our report is an attempt to compare the approaches of international law with the approaches of authorized education.

The principles of law are its main principles, original ideas, which are characterized by universality, general significance, higher imperativeness and reflect the essential provisions of law. Legal principles are the synthesizing principles, unifying ties, ideological basis of the emergence, formation and functioning of many legal phenomena.

The purpose of legal principles is that they: 1) carry out a universal and generalized consolidation of the foundations of the social order; 2) ensure a uniform formulation of legal norms and their influence on social relations in the form of legal regulation and other types of legal influence (informational, value-oriented, psychological, system-creating, etc.)

Depending on the functional purpose and object of display, the principles of law are divided into socio-legal and special-legal. Socio-legal principles reflect a system of values ​​that are inherent in society and have or should have a legal form of expression and provision (the dominance of universal values ​​over the interests of classes, nations, etc., the unity of public and personal interests). Special legal principles generalize the principles of the formation and existence of law itself as a specific social phenomenon.

It is also known that the methods of legal norm-making correspond to their own forms of reflection of legal norms: unilateral expression of the will of state bodies - a legal normative act, bilateral or multilateral expression of the will of subjects of law on a parity basis - a legal normative condition, sanctioning - a legal custom, recognition of a precedent - judicial precedent, etc.

The main forms of establishing legal norms are legal regulations, contracts, legal customs and judicial or administrative precedents.

Approaches and principles of authorized education are developed according to a similar scheme, the need for its implementation is due, in particular, to the direction of "dialogue democracy" - a new modern form of the institution of democracy.

It is very difficult, almost impossible, in a world as diverse as ours, in its cultural order, to establish what principles are universally accepted. As with custom, one must content oneself with establishing the general character of the principles according to the requirements of common sense.

It is generally accepted that there are two types of general principles: some can be qualified as general principles of law, they are common to the international legal order and to domestic legal orders. It is about technical principles, about legal logic, or fundamental principles, without which the legal order could not exist. Among these principles, one can cite, for example, unjust enrichment, return of improperly paid sums, compensation for damages, etc.

The main principles of modern international law are formulated in the UN Charter and developed in the 1970 Declaration on the Principles of International Law.

The Charter of the United Nations was signed on June 26, 1945 in San Francisco at the final meeting of the United Nations Conference on the Establishment of the International Organization and entered into force on October 24, 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Statute.

Let's consider the principles given in the specified documents and compare them with the basic rules of authorized education.

The principle of sovereign equality as the equality of states regardless of their size, political, economic and military power. P.1 Article 2 of the UN Charter declares that the organization is based on this principle. The main content of the principle is the obligation of states to respect the sovereign equality and uniqueness of each other, the rights inherent in sovereignty, respect for the legal personality of other states, the right to choose political, economic, social, religious and other orientations.

According to the "Declaration of Principles 

international law", the concept of sovereign equality contains the following elements:

a) states are legally equal;

b) every state enjoys the rights due to full sovereignty (The essence of national sovereignty is that every nation, ethnic group has the right to freely satisfy its national needs, develop culture, language, and contribute to the common treasury of all human culture);

c) each state is obliged to respect the legal personality of other states;

d) territorial integrity and political independence of the state are intact;

e) every state has the right to freely choose and develop its political, social, economic and cultural systems;

f) each state is obliged to fulfill its international obligations in full and in good faith and to live in peace with other states (responsibility, not just rights).

The rule to speak briefly and infrequently in that small sliver of the big world, which authorized education tries to reflect and later change, corresponds to this principle as well as the rule not to criticize, in particular, when it comes to the right to choose a political, economic, social, religious and other orientation.

The principle of equality and self-determination of peoples as the basis on which friendly relations between nations should be developed and necessary measures to be taken to strengthen general peace and the rule of voluntariness are very closely related in this context.

According to the "Declaration on the Principles of International Law", all peoples have the right to freely determine their political status without external interference and to carry out their economic, social and cultural development while respecting this right of others.

Each state should promote friendly relations and cooperation between states, putting an end to colonialism, showing respect for the freely expressed will of other peoples, and also remembering that the subjection of peoples to foreign management and exploitation is a violation of this principle.

The creation of a sovereign independent state, the free accession (can refrain) to an independent state or unification with it, or the establishment of another political status freely determined by the people are also considered as a way for the people to exercise the right to self-determination.

At the same time, the "Declaration" states that "nothing in the above paragraphs should be interpreted as a sanction or encouragement of any actions that lead to dismemberment or partial or complete violation of the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent states.

The principle of non-interference as a fundamental principle of modern international law, enshrined in clause 7 of Article 2 of the UN Charter, means the inadmissibility of interference in the internal affairs of other states. This principle means that no state or group of states has the right to interfere directly or indirectly with any for what reason in the internal or external affairs of another state. Therefore, any form of interference or threats (criticism as a threat) directed against the legal personality of states or against its political, economic and cultural foundations are violations of international law.

States should also not apply or encourage the application of economic, political or other measures (indirect measures also have an effect) with the aim of seeking to subjugate another state and obtaining any advantages from it.

These prohibitions are categorical and comprehensive without any exceptions.

The Do Not Criticize, Privacy rules also keep those present from interfering in the internal affairs of the state whose name is Man.

The principle of non-use of force as one of the most important conditions for peace on Earth and the rule of Do not criticize, which has already been mentioned several times, are trying to build peace, each and every one - in the sphere of their competence.

Like all others, principles have a long history of emergence. As early as 1928, on the initiative of Secretary of State Kellogg and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Brian, the Pact on the Prohibition of War was developed and adopted as a means of resolving political disputes (prohibition of physical violence against each other and the use of force). However, its repeated application led the world community to understand the further development of this principle in subsequent documents. In particular, in the UN Charter and Declaration of 1970.

Aggressive war is a crime against peace that entails responsibility under international law.

Each state must also refrain from the threat or use of force, as well as from acts of reprisals (revenge) associated with the use of force.

However, CHAPTER VII of the UN Charter recognizes self-defense as actions in relation to threats to peace, breaches of peace and acts of aggression. In particular, Article 39 allows, by decision of the Security Council, to take measures "to maintain and restore international peace and security."

And Article 51 states that the Statute does not affect the "inalienable right to individual or collective self-defense" ("The pursuit of non-violence does not mean non-violent behavior always and in everything," - M. Gandhi.)

The principle of peaceful resolution of disputes as one of the principles underlying the life activity and organization of the international community 

laziness This principle is enshrined in paragraph 1 of Article 1 of the UN Charter and in other international legal acts, and the rules Voluntariness, Do not criticize help to do this at the level of interpersonal relations. The "I am the message" technique contributes to this. It is a pity that its use is not so often applied in interstate relations.

Each state resolves its international disputes with other states by reasonable means in such a way as not to endanger international peace, security, and justice.
International disputes are resolved on the basis of the sovereign equality of states and in accordance with the principles of free choice of means of peaceful conflict resolution (with or without mediators). The application of a procedure for the settlement of a dispute, or consent to such a procedure, on which an agreement has been freely reached between States in respect of existing or future disputes to which they are parties, shall not be regarded as incompatible with the principle of sovereign equality.

Art. 33 of the UN Charter also talks about peaceful means of conflict resolution. "Parties involved in any dispute, the continuation of which could threaten the maintenance of international peace and security, must try (the desire of both parties as a guarantee of success) to resolve the dispute through negotiations, examination, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial investigation, appeal to regional bodies or other peaceful means of their choice."

The principle of cooperation is embodied in the UN Charter (item 3 of article 1). Consolidation and development of this principle was obtained in the Declaration on the Principles of International Law, and the rule to be positive can help those who seek to put the principle into practice.

For this purpose:

a) states cooperate with other states in maintaining international peace and security;

b) states cooperate in establishing general respect and observance of human rights, basic freedoms for all (rules for all, all follow the rules) and in eliminating all forms of racial discrimination and all forms of religious intolerance;

c) states carry out their international relations in the economic, social, cultural, technical and trade areas (by occupation, in various spheres) in accordance with the principles of sovereign equality and non-interference;

d) member states of the UN are obliged, in cooperation with the UN, to take joint and individual measures provided for by the relevant provisions of the Charter.

The principle of good faith compliance with international obligations as a necessary condition for the existence of international law, which would not be law without it. This principle also speaks of the recognition of the supreme legal force of the norms of international law - "when the obligations under international treaties conflict with the obligations of the UN members under the Charter, the obligations under the Charter shall prevail." The rule to be on time seems very “technical” at first glance, but we emphasize that this is RULE NUMBER ONE. There was an agreement to keep time, and agreements must be kept. This ancient principle does not lose its relevance.

The principle of territorial integrity. The state territory is the material basis of the state and a necessary condition for its existence. This is also confirmed by Clause 4 of Article 2 of the UN Charter. The principle of territorial integrity is also enshrined in the Final Act of the OSCE of 1975. According to this, states must refrain from any actions incompatible with the goals and principles of the UN Charter, against the territorial integrity, political independence or unity of any participating state and, in particular, from any actions that constitute the use of force or the threat of force.

Do not criticize, Privacy rules preserve the "territorial integrity" of a person.

States must also not make each other's territory the object of military occupation or other direct or indirect measures of use of force in violation of international law or the object of acquisition by means of such measures or threats of implementation. No occupation or acquisition in this way is recognized as legal (the cultivation of respect for one's own law is important).

The principle of the inviolability of borders as a definite addition to the principle of territorial integrity of the state. If the Declaration of 1970 speaks of the principle of inviolability of borders only as an explanation of the principle of non-use of force, then only five years later, in the Final Act of the CSCE, this provision is already established as an independent principle, which accordingly recognizes all borders of states in post-war Europe.

The Do not criticize rule establishes certain moral boundaries in behavior and communication. Sensitivity, particularly gender sensitivity, helps to follow this principle.

The principle of respect for human rights as one of the most important requirements of the UN Charter (clause 3 of article 1) and the rule to be positive are fundamental.

Despite the fact that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948, we do not find it in the Declaration of 1970 in an independent sense. This principle is enshrined only in the Final Act of 1975. It provides for respect for rights and freedoms, including freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief, for all, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion.


the basic principles of modern international law have two main goals. This is the reduction of the military sphere (aggressiveness) and the expansion of international cooperation (cooperation).

The set of these principles is designed to ensure the unity and integrity of the international order (authorization). According to Jean Tuscoz, these principles constitute the material constitution. We also talk about the "internal constitution", which we adopt in the form of basic rules.

Regardless of the certain inconsistency of the principles of modern international law, the lack of clear ways of implementation and protection, their existence and development is a significant and important step on the path of humanity to the realization of the ancient dream of a peaceful and just world order.

This is also facilitated by efforts to reform the largest international organization - the United Nations, the principles of which are laid out in numerous documents, in particular in the speeches of Secretary General Boutros Boutros Gali, in the intention of holding the "Millennium Assembly" in 2000 and the simultaneous holding of the "People's Assembly", called to involve as much as possible of the international community (children and marginalized people, not only official state delegations, institutions, officials) to jointly solve the problems of the world order in the 21st century.

Recent events, in particular in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, should not be interpreted as a complete failure of the UN idea, but only as an urgent need for its reform.



1. Official UN documents (http:/

2. "Declaration on the principles of international law concerning friendly relations of cooperation between states in accordance with the UN Charter", "International Life", 1970, No. 12

3. "Final act of the meeting on security and cooperation in Europe"

4. "International Law", Zh. Tuskoz, IVS, Budapest, 1998

5. Kopeichikov, V. and others. - General theory of the state and law. - K., 1997




Valentina Maslova


Eastern Slavic languages, like German, French, and a number of others, unlike English, which distinguishes between "sex" (biological sex) and "gender" (gender as a sociocultural category), do not differentiate these concepts. However, at the turn of the millennium, it became clear that considering gender only as a biological phenomenon impoverishes and simplifies this categorical concept, because masculinity (manhood) and femininity (femininity) are, on the one hand, phylogenetically determined qualities of the psyche, and on the other, sociocultural formations, which are formed in ontogeny. Then sociologists and philosophers first looked at sex and gender as opposed concepts. Gender is a large complex of social and psychological processes, as well as cultural guidelines, generated by society, which influence the behavior of a national linguistic personality. Thus, the most complex interweaving of cultural, psychological and social aspects takes place in gender. Therefore, gender is now of interest not only to philosophers and sociologists, but also to representatives of a number of sciences, including linguists.

In our report, gender is considered as a phenomenon of culture and language, that is, in the aspect of linguistic and cultural studies.

In classical culture and philosophy, a woman was opposed to a man: a woman is the guardian of the gene pool; it has the most valuable quality in nature - the ability to reproduce life, to continue the family. Despite this, it is associated in society with irrationality (Aristotle), immorality (Schopenhauer), sensibility (Kant), a being with a lot of flaws (Freud), etc.

On the one hand, society has developed such stereotypes of behavior, according to which a woman plays a subordinate role under a man, she must be a good housewife, capable of doing any job, must be kind, patient, obedient, gentle, faithful, beautiful, always desired. German researcher Karin Hausen explains the formation of gender role stereotypes by the dissonance of family life and work. On the other hand, a woman is always negatively evaluated by men's society, which is evidenced by philosophical, historical, literary texts, and political events. A woman is both a "saint" and a "harlot", a "fatal woman" at the same time. Despite the differences in the concepts of femininity, in almost all cultures known to us, a woman is assigned a less honorable "role" than a man. Moreover, Eastern Slavs have a lot in common in their perception of women: Belarus and Ukraine (as well as Russia) are feminine images of our Motherland. In Russian philosophy and culture, a significant place was occupied by the glorification of women in the image of Sophia, Eternal Femininity (V. Solovyov, O. Blok, etc.). Such social and gender roles and forms of behavior are imposed by culture, and such role expectations are formed, which aggravate the differentiation of the sexes. The polarization of the sexes came to be seen as the identification of the "natural" qualities of men and women. That is, the dichotomy of the sexes is modeled by society and culture, and Simone de Beauvoir is absolutely right, whose statement became famous: "One is not born a woman, one becomes a woman."

In postmodern philosophy, man and woman are united in gender. 

Gender is a sociocultural category that does not involve the traditional consideration of sexual roles.

Differences in the verbal behavior of men and women have been noticed by linguists, linguists and psychologists for a long time, but today there is no consensus on the problem. The Danish linguist O. Espersen included the section "Woman" in the book "The Language", but there is no section "Male" in it, because only female language is considered marked, and male language is in accordance with the literary norm.

Our observations allow us to state that not only women's speech is considered marked, but also in the very pair of opposed words "man - woman" the word "woman" is marked. In similar pairs, with imaginary equality, one member is always perceived as more significant, and the other as derived and marked: light - darkness, day - night, man - woman. The unmarked member always leads the couple: bride and groom, grandfather and grandmother. Of course, linguistic markedness cannot be recognized as the only and decisive argument in the matter of reflecting gender relations in language, but we cannot help but see in this a cultural tradition reflected in language.

We are also interested in comparisons, which are the oldest type of intellectual activity that precedes numbers. On the basis of comparison and other intellectual techniques, each nation develops its own stereotypes and symbols. So, among Russians and Russian women, a woman is a birch, a flower, a mountain ash; among Belarusians and Belarusians - kalinka; Lithuanians and Lithuanians cannot compare a woman with a birch, because the gender of the noun affects the formation of the symbol, and for Lithuanians and Lithuanians birch is masculine. Ch. Aitamatov compares a woman with a mare.

Recently, there has been an export of Western feminist trends and approaches to post-Soviet countries, which seems superfluous to us: we have our own social, cultural and linguistic situation, which makes Western theories inadequate. Necessary research, carried out on their own national and cultural soil.

Our observations show that stereotypes are firmly established in the language, according to which many vices are inherent in a woman, so comparing a man with her always carries a negative connotation: talkative, curious, flirtatious, narcissistic, cranky, hysterical as a woman, female logic; a woman is only beautified by comparison with a man: a man's mind, a man's grip, a man's character. A woman is attributed with the inability to make friends and keep secrets, stupidity, illogicality: Babe road from oven to threshold, Babe minds ruin homes; Where the ladies are for the gentlemen, there is the devil for the commissars. In many proverbs about women, a contemptuous and superior tone slips through: My business is the side, and my husband is right; The husband's sin remains behind the threshold. and the wife carries everything home; A woman flatters - evil will arise.

Even a woman in the role of a wife carries negative connotations: to show Kuzka's mother; Drink wine, beat your wife, don't be afraid of anything! I will marry, as if I will fall behind a cloud; You get married once, but you cry all your life.

These are linguistic and folk stereotypes. And what is language behavior in reality?

Researching language strategies, Deborah Tanen in her book "That's Not What I Meant! How communication styles build or destroy relationships" showed that men and women use language for different purposes: a woman treats conversation as an important part of personal relationships; a man, on the contrary, uses language to show that he is in control of the situation, the conversation helps him maintain his independence and enrich his status (Tannen, 1994). The reasons for this, according to the author, lie in communicative styles. She singles out two of their most important characteristics - involvement and independence. Men are independent, and women are involved in family concerns.

Our observations and those of other researchers allow us to establish that men are more receptive to new things in the language, there are more neologisms and terms in their language.

A woman's language is more neutral, static, outdated words and expressions are more common in her vocabulary. Women's speech is much more emotional, which is expressed in the more frequent use of exclamations, metaphors, comparisons, epithets, figurative words. In her lexicon there are more words describing feelings, emotions, psychophysiological states. Women tend to use euphemisms. They try to avoid elements of pan-fraternity, nicknames, epithets, and invective vocabulary (V.I. Batov, 1991).

During the study of the frequency of use of certain parts of speech, it was established that there are more complex adjectives, adverbs, and conjunctions in the language of women. Women often use concrete nouns in their speech, while men use abstract ones; men more often use active verbs, women - passive. This is explained by the more active lifestyle of men. At the same time, it was established that with an increase in the level of education, language differences disappear.

The use of color designations in men and women is very different: in women, the color spectrum is wider, more designations of exotic color names are used: "moir", "azure". Color markings in female poets turn into symbols much more often than in men. Men's color markings are more specific, more grounded: the color of a pressed strawberry (Herzen "Notes of one m

cool person"); eyes, bold and variegated colors of bees; mummy-colored neck; partridge-colored skirt (Bunin); Sobakevich's tailcoat was perfectly bear-colored (Gogol). Let's take a look at women's color codes. how M. Tsvetaev uses the azure color.

The bright yellow color was called the azure color. In the poem "Alleys", azure symbolizes heavenly, heavenly temptation:

Azure, Azure,

Cool mountain!

Azure, Azure,

The second land!

Zor - Lazorevna,

Sin - Ladanovna,

Azure - Azure.

My coolness!

La - zor!

M. Tsvetaeva seems to be playing azure, turning the word around with its different facets, fearlessly experimenting with color, turning it now into a symbol of a steep mountain, then into a symbol of the earth, then into a symbol of coolness. In copying folklore, complex names such as Zor - Lazorevna, Sin - Ladanovna arise.

Psychologists E. Maccoby and K. Jacklin (1974) believe that women generally have higher language abilities than men. As if in opposition to them, R. Plomin and T. Foch claim that gender differences are responsible for no more than 5% of intellectual indicators and 1% of verbal abilities, that is, in fact, gender differences overlap with individual characteristics.

In addition, in speech behavior, a woman focuses on "open social prestige", that is, on generally accepted norms of social and linguistic behavior, while a man gravitates to, so to speak, hidden prestige - to deviation from the established norms and rules of communication. Therefore, in general, a woman's speech is softer, non-conflicting. Women are less categorical in expressing and defending their opinions. This makes them more suitable for performing a number of functions in society. Society's awareness of this fact leads to the beginning of a reassessment of the clearly degraded social status of a woman - a business woman, a woman - a boss, a woman and money, a cool woman (for the Chinese). Thus, she will finally take her rightful place. An example of this can be Ukraine, where a woman was a candidate for the post of President for a certain time.




1. Tannen D. That`s Not I meant! How Conversational Style Makes of Breaks Relationship. Ballantine Rooks. New York, 1994.




Olena Semikolenova


The gender approach to the analysis of linguistic problems appeared in Russian studies relatively recently - in the 80s, a little later than in other social sciences. As you know, society's views on gender issues are fixed in the form of language stereotypes, leaving an imprint on the individual's behavior, in particular, language. Each language has its own means of expressing gender stereotypes. In the Russian language, this is most clearly manifested in vocabulary, word formation, and morphology when creating certain grammatical forms.

For a long time, the topic of the relationship between language and gender was peripheral in linguistics, no systematic research was conducted in this area. However, interesting observations related to this issue are noticed in various sources. For example, E. Tylor in his work "Primitive Culture" [10], published in 1871, writes: "Language always makes